God's Pantheon

What is it: is man only a blunder of God,
or God only a blunder of man?
-Friederich Neitzche

To think of God as having a pantheon goes contrary to Judaic, Christian and Islamic doctrine. For God to have a pantheon implies that he has a host of other gods over which he rules. More so, it implies that there is no such thing as a single god. The confusion has to do with semantics. If we work backward from the polytheistic point of view, angels, demons and spirits all qualify as lesser gods. What is meant by "monotheism" is that only the supreme god is worshiped. That doesn't take away from the recorded belief in the existence of lesser gods. Thus, what we learn is that Christianity, Judaism and Islam are just as the polytheistic as the pagan religions from which they spawned.

17For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great, the mighty,
and the terrible God, who is not partial and takes no bribe.
(Deut 10:17)

Monotheists might get away with their belief in a single god if angels performed their duties only as messengers. But alas, they had many more duties, many of which were not so pleasant. The most striking one of all was the destroyer angel who killed the firstborn during the Passover. God also employed demons, animals and monsters, and even Satan as forces of evil. Gods were believed to have human form too; some began with supernatural powers, others were deified at the end of their lives. In God's pantheon, we can include divine beings who functioned as spirits. And finally, certain words were personified as deputies of god too.

Add it all up and we find that the god of the Bible was no different than the other supreme gods of Mesopotamia who used a variety of lower-ranking deities to perform specialized functions.


"Angel" comes from the Hebrew, malak. Malak is used to designate either a human messenger or a supernatural messenger. When it was translated into Latin, it became angelus (angelos in Greek) to distinguish the supernatural messengers from the human kind. The distinction is not so clear in the Old Testament, when some angels appear in human form.

When we compare the Latin root of angle, angulus to the Latin root of angel, angelus, they look suspiciously similar. This suggests that these divine messages came astrologically.

20Bless the Lord, O you his angels, you mighty ones who do his word, hearkening to the voice of his word! (Psalms 103:20)

The gods of Mesopotamia only had local powers. So they communicated with each other over great distances by means of lower divinities. They were neither omniscient nor capable of immediately transporting themselves from one location to another, so they got their news from angels. This is best expressed in 2 Sam. 14:20.

20In order to change the course of affairs your servant Joab did this. But my lord [David] has wisdom like the wisdom of the angel of God to know all things that are on the earth." (2 Sam. 14:20)>

There was a tendency for these ancient gods to employ one messenger. The Greek god of communication Hermes, for example, could cross boundaries between the living and the dead. His near equivalent in Roman mythology was Mercury. In most cases, pagan parallels to angels can be found in ancient literature.

It wasn't until the latter part of the Old Testament, when the prophets defined angels exclusively as God's messengers.


Defined here as the angel of the bottomless pit

11And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. (Rev. 9:11)


Archangels are described as chief angels or angels of high rank.

16For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel's call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first; (1 Thes. 4:16)

9But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, disputed about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a reviling judgment upon him, but said, "The Lord rebuke you."(Jude 1:9)


God is said to have an army of angels at his command.

1Jacob went on his way and the angels of God met him;
2and when Jacob saw them he said, "This is God's army!" So he called the name of that place Mahanaim (Gen. 32:1-2)

Angels are said to number in the thousands of thousands.

11Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders the voice of many angels, numbering myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, (Rev. 5:11)

14And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, followed him on white horses.(Rev. 19:14)


As representatives of God, angels are to be obeyed.

20"Behold, I send an angel before you, to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place which I have prepared.
21Give heed to him and hearken to his voice, do not rebel against him, for he will not pardon your transgression; for my name is in him. (EX. 23:20-21)

Yet, according to Job, God does not trust his angels.

18>Even in his servants he puts no trust, and his angels he charges with error; (Job 4:18)


If there was peace in heaven, God wouldn't need a military like an army of angels led by a commander.

15And the commander of the LORD'S army said to Joshua, "Put off your shoes from your feet; for the place where you stand is holy." And Joshua did so.(Josh. 5:15)


It was God who sent destroying angels to kill the firstborn in Egypt. We could think of this as the Egyptian holocaust for which Jews celebrate their Passover.

48He gave over their cattle to the hail, and their flocks to thunderbolts.
49He let loose on them his fierce anger, wrath, indignation, and distress, a company of destroying angels.
50He made a path for his anger; he did not spare them from death, but gave their lives over to the plague.
51He smote all the first-born in Egypt, the first issue of their strength in the tents of Ham. (Psalms 78:48-49)

23For the LORD will pass through to slay the Egyptians; and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to slay you. (Ex. 12:23)

Destroyer angels were sent to Jerusalem, but were stopped when David repented.

15And God sent the angel to Jerusalem to destroy it; but when he was about to destroy it, the Lord saw, and he repented of the evil; and he said to the destroying angel, "It is enough; now stay your hand." And the angel of the Lord was standing by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. (1 Chron. 21:15)

9We must not put the Lord to the test, as some of them did and were destroyed by serpents;
10nor grumble, as some of them did and were destroyed by the Destroyer. (1 Cor. 10:9-10)

Another destroying angel almost destroyed Jerusalem until God stopped him.

16And when the angel stretched forth his hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD repented of the evil, and said to the angel who was working destruction among the people, "It is enough; now stay your hand." And the angel of the LORD was by the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. (2 Sam. 24:16)

Jeremiah predicts God will send a destroyer against the Babylonians.

56for a destroyer has come upon her, upon Babylon; her warriors are taken, their bows are broken in pieces; for the LORD is a God of recompense, he will surely requite. (Jer. 51:56)


Sometimes angels can be seen in dreams.

11Then the angel of God said to me in the dream, 'Jacob,' and I said, 'Here I am!' (Gen. 31:11)

12And he dreamed that there was a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it! (Gen. 28:12)


Angels appeared as fire.

24He drove out the man; and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. (Gen. 3:24)

20And when the flame went up toward heaven from the altar, the angel of the LORD ascended in the flame of the altar while Manoah and his wife looked on; and they fell on their faces to the ground. (Judges 13:20)

4who makest the winds thy messengers, fire and flame thy ministers. (Ps. 104:4)

3Fire devours before them, and behind them a flame burns. The land is like the garden of Eden before them, but after them a desolate wilderness, and nothing escapes them. (Joel 2:3)

7and to grant rest with us to you who are afflicted, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, (2 Thes. 1:7)


In Daniel, Gabriel forecasts the end of the world. In Luke, he tells Joseph of Jesus' birth by the Virgin Mary. Obviously, Gabriel's forecast about the end of the world hasn't happened.

16And I heard a man's voice between the banks of the Ulai, and it called, "Gabriel, make this man understand the vision."

17So he came near where I stood; and when he came, I was frightened and fell upon my face. But he said to me, "Understand, O son of man, that the vision is for the time of the end." (Dan. 8:16)

Gabriel goes to Mary to tell her she will have a son whose name will be Jesus. This contradicts the Matthew version.

26In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth,
27to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. (Luke 1:26-27)

Opposed to Luke, Matthew says an ordinary angel name told Joseph, his future wife is pregnant.

20"But just when he had resolved to this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as you wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit."(Matt. 1:20)

According to Islamic history, in the year 610 C.E., Gabriel came to Muhammad in a dream to tell him he was a messenger of God. A whole new religion was launched.


Angels are sent for protection.

7The Lord, the God of heaven, who took me from my father's house and from the land of my birth, and who spoke to me and swore to me, 'To your descendants I will give this land,' he will send his angel before you, and you shall take a wife for my son from there. (Gen. 24:7)

20"Behold, I send an angel before you, to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place which I have prepared. (Ex. 23:20)

11For he will give his angels charge of you to guard you in all your ways. (Ps. 91:11)

An angel protected Elijah when he was in the wilderness without food.

5And he lay down and slept under a broom tree; and behold, an angel touched him, and said to him, "Arise and eat."

6And he looked, and behold, there was at his head a cake baked on hot stones and a jar of water. And he ate and drank, and lay down again. (1 Kings 19:5-6)


Angels act as guides.

7The LORD, the God of heaven, who took me from my father's house and from the land of my birth, and who spoke to me and swore to me, 'To your descendants I will give this land,' he will send his angel before you, and you shall take a wife for my son from there. (Gen. 24:7)

Moses' angel leads the Israelites.

34But now go, lead the people to the place of which I have spoken to you; behold, my angel shall go before you. Nevertheless, in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon them."(Ex. 32:34)

God sends an angel to lead the Israelites.

2And I will send an angel before you, and I will drive out the Canaanites, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. (Ex. 33:2)

Host of Heaven

The Host of Heaven are depicted as Yahweh's warrior army. For there to be so many, they had to be the stars.

10He said, "I have been very jealous for the LORD, the God of hosts; for the people of Israel have forsaken thy covenant, thrown down thy altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away." (1 Kings 19:10)

19And Micaiah said, "Therefore hear the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing beside him on his right hand and on his left; (1 Kings 22:19)

4Hark, a tumult on the mountains as of a great multitude! Hark, an uproar of kingdoms, of nations gathering together! The LORD of hosts is mustering a host for battle.

5They come from a distant and, from the end of the heavens, the LORD and the weapons of his indignation, to destroy the whole earth. (Isaiah 13:4-5)


An angel kills 185,000 Assyrians in one night. This has to be highly exaggerated.

35And that night the angel of the LORD went forth, and slew a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the camp of the Assyrians; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, these were all dead bodies. (2 Kgs. 19:35)


In many instances, angels can be seen in human form. At minimum, they had a physical presence.

11But the angel of the Lord called to him from heaven, and said, "Abraham, Abraham!" And he said, "Here am I." (Gen. 22:11)

An ass saw an angel standing in the road with a drawn sword.

23And the ass saw the angel of the Lord standing in the road, with a drawn sword in his hand; and the ass turned aside out of the road, and went into the field; and Balaam struck the ass, to turn her into the road. 24Then the angel of the Lord stood in a narrow path between the vineyards, with a wall on either side. (Num. 22:25)

Angels can be seen standing in front with the appearance of a man

15When I, Daniel, had seen the vision, I sought to understand it; and behold, there stood before me one having the appearance of a man. (Dan. 8:15)

And the angel of the Lord was standing by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. (1 Chron. 21:15)

Two angels looking like men stood at the front of Jesus tomb.

4While they were perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel; (Luke 24:4)


At a time when Sarah could not bear children, an angel tells her she will bear a son. Since Abraham was not been able to get her pregnant, it suggests God was the father. Jesus so-called divine conception was not the first.

9The angel of the Lord said to her, "Return to your mistress, and submit to her." 
10The angel of the Lord also said to her, "I will so greatly multiply your descendants that they cannot be numbered for multitude."  
11And the angel of the Lord said to her, "Behold, you are with child, and shall bear a son; you shall call his name Ishmael; because the Lord has given heed to your affliction. (Gen. 16:9-11)

An angel appears to Joseph, telling his wife will have a son by the Holy Spirit.

20But as he considered this, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, "Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit; (Matt. 1:20)

An angel appears to Zechariah, telling him his wife Elizabeth will have a son whose name will be John (the Baptist).

13But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zechariah, for your prayer is heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. (Luke 1:13)


Archangel Michael is depicted as contending with the devil in the Book of Jude and fighting the dragon in Revelation.

9But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, disputed about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a reviling judgment upon him, but said, "The Lord rebuke you." (Jude 1:9)

7Now war arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, (Rev. 12:7)


Jacob dreamt that angels traveled between heaven and earth on a ladder.

12And he dreamed that there was a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it! (Gen. 28:12)


God sent a strong delusion angel to make them believe falsehoods.

11Therefore God sends upon them a strong delusion, to make them believe what is false, (2 Thes. 2:9)

God sent angels to keep them from believing in him.

4In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the likeness of God.(2 Cor. 4:4)


Angels can appear as lightning dressed in white.

2And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it.
3His appearance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow. (Matt. 28:2-3)


An angel is said to know all things on earth. At this time, the Jewish god was local, so he got his information from, angels who could roam anywhere. In the evolution of religious thought, angels went from being messengers to God to messengers from God.

20In order to change the course of affairs your servant Joab did this. But my lord [David] has wisdom like the wisdom of the angel of God to know all things that are on the earth." (2 Sam. 14:20)


God sends an angel of pestilence to Israel, killing 70,000 men.

12either three years of famine; or three months of devastation by your foes, while the sword of your enemies overtakes you; or else three days of the sword of the Lord, pestilence upon the land, and the angel of the Lord destroying throughout all the territory of Israel.' Now decide what answer I shall return to him who sent me."
14So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel; and there fell seventy thousand men of Israel. (1 Chron. 21:12, 14)

Pillar of cloud

In the form of a pillar of cloud, and angel stood behind the fleeing Israelites to protect them from the pursuing Egyptians.

19Then the angel of God who went before the host of Israel moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them, (Ex. 14:19)


If the Lord sent a plague, we can assume it was an angel.

35And the Lord sent a plague upon the people, because they made the calf which Aaron made. (Ex. 32:35)

Seven angels are described with seven plagues.

1Then I saw another portent in heaven, great and wonderful, seven angels with seven plagues, which are the last, for with them the wrath of God is ended. (Rev. 15:1)


Raphael is described as one of the seven holy angels who presents the prayers of the saints.

15I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy one." (Tobit 12:15)


Jesus predicts, when the end of the world comes, angels will bring death.

39and the enemy who sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the close of the age, and the reapers are angels. (Matt. 13:39)

Jesus adds that when the end comes, the angels will separate the evil from the righteous.

49So it will be at the close of the age. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous, (Matt. 13:49)


An angel redeemed Joseph.

16the angel who had redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and in them let my name be perpetuated, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth." (Gen. 48:16)


Two human-like angels came to Sodom to investigate. This suggests God had limited vision then.

1The two angels came to Sodom in the evening; and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he rose to meet them, and bowed himself with his face to the earth,

2and said, "My lords, turn aside, I pray you, to your servant's house and spend the night, and wash your feet; then you may rise up early and go on your way." (Gen 19:1)

12It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in the things which have now been announced to you by those who preached the good news to you through the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, things into which angels long to look. (1 Pet. 1:12)


God sends one angel to fight off the army of Assyria.

21And the Lord sent an angel, who cut off all the mighty warriors and commanders and officers in the camp of the king of Assyria. So he returned with shame of face to his own land. And when he came into the house of his god, some of his own sons struck him down there with the sword. (2 Chron. 32:21)


Unknown forces of nature were seen to have a divine presence.

4who makest the winds thy messengers, fire and flame thy ministers. (Psalm 104:4)



Along with Jesus and Elijah, Enoch is in heaven too.

24Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him. (Gen. 5:24)


Christians have the mistaken belief that Jesus was the only one who died and went to heaven. The prophet Elijah went there before him. Jesus is not alone up there.

11And as they still went on and talked, behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. (2 Kings 2:11)


The idea that Jesus and the god of creation are the same rests entirely on John 1:1-2. The weight of the evidence goes with the first three gospels which assert his life began as a man or as a demigod (part god, part man). Jesus deserves a place in God's pantheon, because of his full deification after his death. This ranks him as a minor god along with Enoch and Elijah. Sorry, Christians!

2He was in the beginning with God;
3all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made. (John 1:1-2)

There are too many to list where Jesus saw himself apart from God. In the passage below, Jesus says he does whatever God commands him. If Jesus and God were one, this leaves the absurd thought that God as Jesus had himself crucified.

31but I do as the Father has commanded me, so that the world may know that I love the Father. Rise, let. (John 14:31)

Like Enoch and Elijah before him, Jesus went up to heaven in a cloud. His deification would have to start after he died, not before. Logic dictates that if he was a God before his crucifixion, he didn't die.

9And when he had said this, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight. (Acts 1:9)

Sons of God

Christians may believe that Jesus was the only son of God, but according to the Old Testament there were many more. How this fits in with the Trinitarian, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, Christians will have to figure out for themselves.

Even if we discount lesser supernatural beings as gods, for a religion to be strictly monotheistic, a supreme god cannot have sons. This accounts for why the Christian Founders disregarded basic arithmetic and incorporated Jesus into a Trinity.

These sons of God picked the fairest for wives for themselves. In fact, their behavior was one of the reasons God unleashed his great flood.

1When men began to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters were born to them,

2the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair; and they took to wife such of them as they chose.(Gen. 6:1-2)

God had twelve sons to match the twelve tribes of Israel.

8When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he fixed the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God (Deut. 32:8)

One day, God had a meeting with his sons and Satan.

6>Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them. (Job 1:6)

According to Luke, Adam was also a son of God. Since he was the first man to be created, he would have to be by default, the first son of god. Luke's way of showing Jesus was a son of God was by going through a long genealogy linking Jesus to Adam. The problem is that Luke's narrow mindedness prevented him from seeing that by the same logic, the entire human race qualifies as sons of God.

38the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.(Luke 3:38)

As king, David is described as a son of God. In fact, it was commonplace in ancient times for kings to insist on being regarded as a son of god. This extended all the way to medieval times.

7Iwill tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, "You are my son, today I have begotten you. (Ps. 2:7)

God calls Israel his first born son.

22And you shall say to Pharaoh, 'Thus says the LORD, Israel is my first-born son,
23and I say to you, "Let my son go that he may serve me"; if you refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay your first-born son.'" (Ex. 4:22-23)

Speaking through Moses, God calls his chosen people his sons. This would put every Jew in the same class as Jesus.

1"You are the sons of the LORD your God; you shall not cut yourselves or make any baldness on your foreheads for the dead.
2For you are a people holy to the LORD your God, and the LORD has chosen you to be a people for his own possession, out of all the peoples that are on the face of the earth.(Deut. 14:1-2)

So when God calls Jesus his son, it doesn't mean his only son. A lot of New Testament rhetoric was copied from the Old Testament. The term is so over used it means nothing.

7Iwill tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, "You [David] are my son, today I have begotten you. (Ps. 2:7)

16And when Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him;
17and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased." (Matt. 4:16-17, Mk. 1:11, Luke 3:22)

As a footnote, this carries over to the Catholic tradition of canonizing saints. Saints are supposed to be patrons over a particular activity who watch and protect baptized Catholics. This means, of course, that they live as minor deities. By Church law, every child, when "christened," is supposed to be given a Saint's name as a way of assuring lifelong protection.

Son of Man

In these passages, "son of man" is depicted as a heavenly figure who looks like a human being. Obviously, he or they preceded Jesus.

21that he would maintain the right of a man with God, like that of a man with his neighbor. (Job 16:21)

4what is man that thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that thou dost care for him? (Ps. 8:4)

The Old Testament writers had a low regard for anyone known as a son of man.

19God is not man, that he should lie, or a son of man, that he should repent. (Num. 23:19)

6how much less man, who is a maggot, and the son of man, who is a worm!" (Job 25:6)

4what is man that thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that thou dost care for him?

5Yet thou hast made him little less than God, and dost crown him with glory and honor. (Psalm 8:4-5)

3Put not your trust in princes, in a son of man, in whom there is no help.  (Ps. 146:3)

24"Son of man, the inhabitants of these waste places in the land of Israel (Ezek. 33:24)

By the time we get to the New Testament, "son of man" takes a positive meaning.

Jesus used the term to refer to his own ministry in allegorical terms. Notice that in all cases, Jesus uses "son of man" in the third person, and no where does he explicitly assert he is the son of man.

20And Jesus said to him, "Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man has nowhere to lay his head." (Matt. 8:20; Luke 9:58)

At times, he used the term to predict his future suffering. Again, it is not clear if Jesus was referring to himself literally as the son of man.

31And he began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.(Mark 8:31; Luke 9:22)

It is especially not clear because he denounced God for forsaking him. These are not the words of a man who expected or wanted to be a martyr.

34And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice,"Elo-i, Elo-i, lama sabach-thani?" which means, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" (Mark 15:34)

Other times he used the phrase to refer to a cosmic judge from heaven.

38For whoever is ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him will the Son of man also be ashamed, when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels." (Mark 8:38)

62And Jesus said, "I am; and you will see the Son of man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven." (Mark 14:61)

After Jesus' death, the first Christian martyr, Stephen, assumed it was Jesus who stood at the right hand of God. Obviously, if Jesus stood at God's right hand, he could not be God at the same time.

56and he [Stephen]said,"Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing at the right hand of God." (Acts 7:56)

This might have come from Mark who said that Jesus sat at God's right hand.

19So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. (Mark 16:19)

In fact, this is the standard erroneous assumption embedded in Christian thinking.

Why Jesus was not the son of man.

From an apocalyptic viewpoint, the book of Revelation is especially vivid on the appearance of a son of man. This doesn't fit the appearance of Jesus or of God.

13and in the midst of the lamp stands one like a son of man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden girdle round his breast;
14his head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; his eyes were like a flame of fire,
15his feet were like burnished bronze, refined as in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of many waters;
16in his right hand he held seven stars, from his mouth issued a sharp two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining in full strength. (Rev. 1:13-16)

On a number of occasions, Jesus clearly alluded to the son of man as someone else who will prevail when the end of the world comes-the Book of John departs from Jesus' apocalyptic views. Given the fact that John had no other materiel to work from besides the Gospels and unreliable oral accounts, the weight of the evidence goes to the first three Gospels.

38For whoever is ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him will the Son of man also be ashamed, when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels." (Mark 8:38)

44Therefore you also must be ready; for the Son of man is coming at an hour you do not expect. (Matt. 24:44; Luke 12;39)

Jesus' did originate his beliefs about the son of man and the end of the world. As a Jew, he would have gotten his apocalyptic beliefs from the Book of Daniel.

In Daniel, the son of man will be given an eternal kingdom, the perpetual rule over the earth, with dominion, power, and praise forever, as the beasts are robbed of their power and done away with.

13I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him.
14And to him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed. (Daniel 7:13-14)

Daniel goes on to tell us that he sees four beasts, each worse than the previous. They trample the earth, wreak havoc, and devastate the people of God.

17'These four great beasts are four kings who shall arise out of the earth.
18But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, for ever and ever.'
19"Then I desired to know the truth concerning the fourth beast, which was different from all the rest, exceedingly terrible, with its teeth of iron and claws of bronze; and which devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet;
20and concerning the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn which came up and before which three of them fell, the horn which had eyes and a mouth that spoke great things, and which seemed greater than its fellows.
21As I looked, this horn made war with the saints, and prevailed over them,
22until the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High, and the time came when the saints received the kingdom.
23"Thus he said: 'As for the fourth beast, there shall be a fourth kingdom on earth, which shall be different from all the kingdoms, and it shall devour the whole earth, and trample it down, and break it to pieces.
24As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom ten kings shall arise, and another shall arise after them; he shall be different from the former ones, and shall put down three kings.
25He shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand for a time, two times, and half a time. (Daniel 7:17-25)

When Judgment day comes, the son of man will overthrow the forces of evil and bring God's good kingdom on earth.

26But the court shall sit in judgment, and his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed to the end.
27And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.'
28"Here is the end of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts greatly alarmed me, and my color changed; but I kept the matter in my mind." (Daniel 7:26:28)

Jesus thought Judgment day would come in the lifetime of his apostles. So rest easy non-Christians. The apocalyptics, including Jesus, have been dead wrong for 2,000 years. Jesus is not going to come as the son of man or as any other kind of man. Besides, if such a day should come, there would be too few survivors to produce the material comforts they now enjoy. They might not like what they wish for.

1And he said to them, "Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death before they see that the kingdom of God has come with power."(Mark 9:1)


The Nephilim are described as semi-divine sons of God. The word translates literally to fallen ones. After Noah's flood, they reappear as giants living in Canaan.

4The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God [Elohim] came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. These were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.  (Gen. 6:4)

33And there we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak, who come from the Nephilim); and we seemed to ourselves like grasshoppers, and so we seemed to them." (Num. 13:33)


The word "Zombies" is not used anywhere in the Bible, but this description of dead saints coming out of their graves and walking around the city fits the description perfectly. This event is said to have occurred after Jesus died.

51And behold, the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom; and the earth shook, and the rocks were split;
52the tombs also were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised,
53and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many.(Matt. 27:51-53)


In this catch all list, we include anything evil not explicitly associated with the other categories.


On one occasion, some boys made fun of Elisha's bald head. So he cursed them in the name of God, who whereupon sent two bears to kill forty two boys.

23He [Elisha] went up from there to Bethel; and while he was going up on the way, some small boys came out of the city and jeered at him, saying, "Go up, you baldhead! Go up, you baldhead!"
24And he turned around, and when he saw them, he cursed them in the name of the Lord. And two she-bears came out of the woods and tore forty-two of the boys. (2 Kings 2:23-24)


God's demons come in many threatening forms.

23"'And I will heap evils upon them; I will spend my arrows upon them;

24they shall be wasted with hunger, and devoured with burning heat and poisonous pestilence; and I will send the teeth of beasts against them,  with venom of crawling things of the dust. (Deut. 32:24)

9We must not put the Lord to the test, as some of them did and were destroyed by serpents;
10nor grumble, as some of them did and were destroyed by the Destroyer. (1 Cor. 10:10)


It is debatable whether these were angels in the form of lions or whether God demonized real lions.

25And at the beginning of their dwelling there, they did not fear the LORD; therefore the LORD sent lions among them, which killed some of them.

26So the king of Assyria was told, "The nations which you have carried away and placed in the cities of Samaria do not know the law of the god of the land; therefore he has sent lions among them, and behold, they are killing them, because they do not know the law of the god of the land." (2 Kings 17:25-26)


In the chronology of these three passages, God angrily tells David to take a census. Afterward, David realized he sinned. According to Chronicles, it was actually Satan who deceived David. Adding it up, it suggests God sent Satan as an impersonator.

1Again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, "Go, number Israel and Judah." (2 Sam. 24:1)

10But David's heart smote him after he had numbered the people. And David said to the LORD, "I have sinned greatly in what I have done. But now, O LORD, I pray thee, take away the iniquity of thy servant; for I have done very foolishly." (2 Sam. 24:10)

1Satan stood up against Israel, and incited David to number Israel. (1 Chron. 21:1)

God and Satan conspire to test Job.

8And the LORD said to Satan, "Have you considered my servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, who fears God and turns away from evil?" (Job 1:8)

Satan teams up with one of God's angels.

1Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him. (Zech. 3:1)


These creatures are grotesque.


Ezekiel describes Cheribum as having four faces, four wings and something resembling hands. A counterpart to Cheribum would be the Egyptian sphinx.

24He drove out the man; and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. (Gen. 3:24)

20These were the living creatures that I saw underneath the God of Israel by the river Chebar; and I knew that they were cherubim.

21Each had four faces, and each four wings, and underneath their wings the semblance of human hands. (Ezek. 10:20-21)


Conceived as six winged serpents with human attributes

2Above him stood the seraphim; each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew.

3And one called to another and said: "Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory." (Isaiah 6:2-3)


God used serpents against the people when he saw fit.

6Then the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people, so that many people of Israel died. (Num. 21:6)

9We must not put the Lord to the test, as some of them did and were destroyed by serpents;

10nor grumble, as some of them did and were destroyed by the Destroyer.Cor. 10:9-10)


To personify means to speak of a thing as if it has life. Ancients had a habit of either personifying or deifying abstract concepts.


The Hebrew term for destruction isqeteb. According to Moses, it is personified as a divine being.

24They shall be wasted with hunger, devoured by pestilence and bitter destruction [qeteb]; I will also send against them the teeth of beasts, with the poison of serpents of the dust. (Deut. 32:24, KJV)

6Nor of the pestilence that walks in darkness, Nor of the destruction [qeteb] that lays waste at noonday. (Psalms 91:6)

Job personifies destruction.

21You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue, and shall not fear destruction when it comes. (Job 5:21)


Calamity is personified as a demon brought by God.

35Vengeance is mine, and recompense, for the time when their foot shall slip; for the day of their calamity is at hand, and their doom comes swiftly. (Deut. 32:35)

20And he cried to the LORD, "O LORD my God, hast thou brought calamity even upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son?"(1 Kings. 17:20)

12His strength is hunger-bitten, and calamity is ready for his stumbling. (Job 18:12)

Chariot and horses

The relationship to fire comes from the ancient belief that the sun is a wheel turning through the heavens.

11And as they still went on and talked, behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. (2 Kings 2:11)


Justice is defined as a divinity over which God ruled. This might explain why there is so much injustice in the world.

18Therefore the LORD waits to be gracious to you; therefore he exalts himself to show mercy to you. For the LORD is a God of justice; blessed are all those who wait for him. (Isa. 30:18)


According to Jeremiah, God advised Israel's rival neighbors to get drunk until they vomit and fall, because he is sending a sword against them.

27"Then you shall say to them, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Drink, be drunk and vomit, fall and rise no more, because of the sword which I am sending among you.'

28"And if they refuse to accept the cup from your hand to drink, then you shall say to them, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: You must drink!

29For behold, I begin to work evil at the city which is called by my name, and shall you go unpunished? You shall not go unpunished, for I am summoning a sword against all the inhabitants of the earth, says the LORD of hosts.' (Jer. 25:27)

10That day is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, to avenge himself on his foes. The sword shall devour and be sated, and drink its fill of their blood. For the Lord GOD of hosts holds a sacrifice in the north country by the river Euphrates. (Jer. 46:10)


We normally think of terror as something we perceive. To "send my terror," means it is coming after you.

27I will send my terror before you, and will throw into confusion all the people against whom you shall come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. (Ex. 23:27)


If God lords over truth, he controls it. What about liars?

16So that he who blesses himself in the land shall bless himself by the God of truth, and he who takes an oath in the land shall swear by the God of truth; because the former troubles are forgotten and are hid from my eyes. (Isa. 65:16)


Wisdom is described as a goddess. A third and conflicting version of creation that parallels the Genesis 1 and 2 accounts can be found in Proverbs 8:22-30. It suggests that Wisdom is God's female counterpart.

20Wisdom cries aloud in the street; in the markets she raises her voice

21on the top of the walls she cries out; at the entrance of the city gates she speaks: (Prov. 1:20-21)

Wisdom was there at the time of creation.

19The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding he established the heavens;
20by his knowledge the deeps broke forth, and the clouds drop down the dew. (Prov. 3:19-20)

She is highly prized.

5do not forget, and do not turn away from the words of my mouth. Get wisdom; get insight.
6Do not forsake her, and she will keep you; love her, and she will guard you.
7The beginning of wisdom is this: Get wisdom, and whatever you get, get insight.
8Prize her highly, and she will exalt you; she will honor you if you embrace her.
9She will place on your head a fair garland; she will bestow on you a beautiful crown. (Prov. 4:5-9)

God created her first before he created anything else. This third story of creation continues to Proverbs 31.

22The LORD created me at the beginning of his work, the first of his acts of old.
23 Ages ago I was set up, at the first, before the beginning of the earth.
24When there were no depths I was brought forth, when there were no springs abounding with water. (Prov. 8:22-24)


"Word" translates to logos in Greek. The Greeks associate Hermes with Logos who was sent down by the gods to make man the only rational creature on earth. He was also known as a messenger of the gods. To the Egyptians he was associated with the lunar deity, Thoth, without whose knowledge, nothing comes into being. The expression, word of the Lord, appears 241 times in the Old Testament.

3For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word [Logos] of the LORD from Jerusalem. (Isa. 2:3)

This famous passage from the book of John has roots in Greek mythology. Christian theology associates Word with Jesus son of God as if words have magical powers.

1In the beginning was the Word [Logos], and the Word [Logos]was with God [Logos], and the Word [Logos] was God. (John 1:1)

Christian theology maintains that the expression, Word, means Son of God. That is really a stretch. First of all, as described above, God had innumerable sons (see Sons of God). To argue that words, such as those used in prayer, have any influence beyond the range of listeners, is to give them magical powers. What good would it do for God to speak at the time of creation if there was no one to listen?


"Spirit" translates to ruwach, meaning wind or breath. Ancients perceived air as a life giving force from God.

Evil Spirit

God sent an evil spirit.

23And God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem; and the men of dealt treacherously with Abimelech; (Judg. 9:23)

23And whenever the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, David took the lyre and played it with his hand; so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him. (1 Sam. 16:23)

14Now the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD tormented him. (1 Sam. 16:14)

Holy Spirit

If it is a holy spirit, it came from the god of the believer. We presume that unholy spirits came from other gods.

11Cast me not away from thy presence, and take not thy holy Spirit from me. (Psalms 51:11)

10But they rebelled and grieved his holy Spirit; therefore he turned to be their enemy, and himself fought against them.
11Then he remembered the days of old, of Moses his servant. Where is he who brought up out of the sea the shepherds of his flock? Where is he who put in the midst of them his holy Spirit, (Isa. 63:10-11)

13If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!" (Luke 11:13)

Lying Spirit

God can make people lie by putting a lying spirit in them.

21Then a spirit came forward and stood before the LORD, saying, 'I will entice him.'

22And the LORD said to him, 'By what means?' And he said, 'I will go forth, and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.' And he said, 'You are to entice him, and you shall succeed; go forth and do so.'

23Now therefore behold, the LORD has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these your prophets; the LORD has spoken evil concerning you." (1 Kings 22:21-23)

Temptation Spirit

The Spirit takes Jesus into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. This would mean that God and the devil conspired to test Jesus.

1Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. (Matt. 4:1)


There are countless souls floating in and out of bodies. Through souls, God has power of life and death.

11For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it for you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement, by reason of the life. (Lev. 17:11)

21Then he stretched himself upon the child three times, and cried to the LORD, "O LORD my God, let this child's soul come into him again." (1 Kings. 17:21)

Spirit of God

In the context of Genesis 1:2, air and water were two of the primordial elements from which all matter was created. Again, "spirit" means "air" in Hebrew.

2The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters. (Gen. 1:2)

Wind spirits

God ruled over four wind gods personally. When God commanded, they brought locusts, messages and one is even said to have wings.

136and I will bring upon Elam the four winds from the four quarters of heaven; and I will scatter them to all those winds, and there shall be no nation to which those driven out of Elam shall not come. (Jer. 49:36)

3So Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day and all that night; and when it was morning the east wind had brought the locusts. (Ex. 10:13)

4who makest the winds thy messengers, fire and flame thy ministers. (Ps. 104:4)

11He rode on a cherub, and flew; he was seen upon the wings of the wind. (2 Sam. 22:11)


Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible by Karel Van Der Toorn, Bob Becking and Peter W. Der Horst