The urge to save humanity is almost always a false front for the urge to rule. -H.L. Mencken
Anybody looking for biblical evidence to show belief in a single creator god will find the earliest passages in the Book of Isaiah. This page outlines the circumstances by which that proclamation took place. The proper noun "God" is a title reserved for a supernatural deity considered worthy of respect. It is like saying "your highness." It does not confer any other characteristics. That's where it gets interesting.
This page will demonstrate that Isaiah's definition of God was of a personified parochial nature; his god has human characteristics. It is not like the modern Jewish concept of a formless universal God; the only thing it has in common is the name Yahweh. And it doesn't fit anything close to a Christian God or an Islamic God. As far as his definition goes, Isaiah's god might as well be a pagan god.
The original Isaiah dates from 742 to 687 BCE when the Assyrians absorbed the northern kingdom of Israel. Chapters 40-66 were added by unknown authors after the Babylonian exile of 586 BCE. In 539 the Persians under Cyrus conquered the Babylonians. This is when Cyrus sanctioned the rebuilding of the temple. The writer(s) of this period is unknown, but I will use Isaiah for convenience.
Up to the time of their captivity, the Hebrews were henotheists-believing in one tribal god, but not as the only god. (see Evolution of God).The verses below about Cyrus affix the date when Judaism became a monotheistic religion to shortly after 539 BCE. Paradoxically, it was written when the Hebrews were under the subjugation of the Persians. Consistent with his belief, the writer said Yahweh anointed Cyrus.
4 (Isa. 41:2-4)
These verses proclaim a single exclusive God without any other ornaments. Christians don't have a name for God; Jews do. The Hebrew translation for "Lord" is Yahweh. Another is the Hebrew translation for "God" that translates to a universal singularity, eloah. The lack of consistency might be attributed to two different authors.
Is there a God besides me?
I am God; there is none else.
2223 (Isa. 45:22-23)
I am God; there is no other.
910 (Isa. 46-9-10)
I am He, I am the first and I am the last.
I am he. Before me no god was formed, nor there be any after me.
I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.
I am the Lord and besides me there is no God; there is no other.
6 (Isa. 45:5-6)
I am Lord; there is no other.
God the creator
Isaiah and his contemporaries believed in a flat earth sitting on a foundation, with a sky that stretches over earth like a dome. Pay attention to the last two verses about Yahweh not creating the chaos and Yahweh cutting Rahab in pieces.
Who has measured the waters and marked off the heaven and enclosed the dust of the earth.
Lift up your eyes and see who created these?
The Lord is the creator of the ends of the earth.
Who created the heavens and spread forth the earth, and who gives breath to the people.
I am the Lord who made all things, who stretched out the heavens, who spread out the earth.
I am the Lord, there is no other, besides me there is no God. I form light and create darkness; I make weal and create woe; I am the Lord who does all these things.
I the Lord created the heavens and earth.
I made the earth and created man upon it. It was my hands that stretched the heavens and I commanded their host. -The heavens envelope earth and the host are stars.
Who's hand laid the foundation of the earth and spread out the heavens.
The Lord your Maker stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth.
I create new heavens and a new earth.
18 (Isa. 65:17-18)
My hands have made all these things.
Yahweh did not create the chaos; he formed it to be inhabited. He formed the earth and made it. He established it; he did not create the chaos, he formed it to be inhabited. I am the Lord; there is no other.
Who cut Rahab in pieces and pierce the dragon.
10 (Isa. 51:9-10)
God has a home in Zion
Zion has no certain etymological meaning. A Christian usage was attached to the SW hill of Jerusalem in the forth century, but we are going to ignore that. Jerusalem in Isaiah's day has no topographical hill called Zion. We are left to draw meaning from the way the word is used. Like the Greek gods who lived on Mount Olympus, Yahweh lived on Mount Zion. Zion has a triple meaning.
As a mountain in heaven where Yahweh dwells
And as a mountain in Jerusalem. One source says it's the SE hill in Jerusalem overlooking the Valley of Kidron but it is not convincing. A hill is one thing and a mountain is another.
5 (Isa. 31:4-5)
The name is used for the first time in 2 Samuel referring to Jerusalem as synonymous with "the stronghold of Zion" and "city of David."
67 (2 Sam. 5:6-7)
I propose that the portrayal of Zion as a celestial mountain has to do with the fact that heavenly bodies move in an arc pattern across the sky as if going over a mountain. It might be a coincidence, but both Zion and Zodiac begin with Z. In Isaiah's world, Yahweh lives in a world above earth along with the stars and planets as its inhabitants. It is a celestial world with places named after places on earth. The parallelism confuses interpreters. What looks like human history is really celestial mythology.
The mountain of the Lord defines the celestial arc.
The highest position on the mountain could be either the time of the noonday sun or the time of the summer solstice.
The direction from which heavenly bodies rise above earth defines the foundation, or it could be the time of the vernal equinox.
The circle above the earth defines the Zodiac with its twelve constellations oriented in a circular pattern.
So if Yahweh sits above the earth, his dwelling on Mount Zion is above the earth.
Here is a case where we see Mount Zion and Jerusalem treated independently.
The cloud describes the Milky Way and canopy describes the array of stars overhead.
Yahewh is the Lord of hosts. Hosts is synonymous with the stars.
Yahweh dwells on high.
Cherubim refer to four cardinal constellations on the Zodiac.
The association of Zion with Eden brings to mind that Eden was the former name for Zion.
Zion is referred to as the City of the Lord.
On Yahweh's holy mountain the gods of Fortune and Destiny are there.
God has Anthropomorphic form
This set defines Yahweh in human form. One could argue that Isaiah is merely talking of Yahweh in metaphoric terms, but it goes beyond that. He treats the metaphors as if they were real objects; Yahweh is an extension of his own body as Yahweh is an extension of his own thoughts. Many of these verses come out of Isaiah's writing as if Yahweh was speaking through him.
Isaiah claims to have seen Yahweh. He was sitting on a throne, high and lifted up; his train filled the temple. The seraphim stood above him, each had six wings. -He didn't see anything real; he translated a celestial image to a symbolic image in his mind.
4 5 (Isa. 6:1-5)
Isaiah tells us that idols are merely images made by men and profitable for nothing.
910 11 (Isa. 44:9-11)
Now I ask. Wouldn't a physical idol made by men be just as unprofitable as a mental image of an idol?
He has hands
1011 (Isa. 25:10-11)
Has lips and a tongue
He has lips
Has a voice and arms
He has arms and a bosom
He compares himself to a woman.
15 (Isa. 49:14-15)
He has an arm
He has a breastplate
He has a right hand and arm
His garments are stained with blood
Yahweh has seen another god.
He sits on a throne and uses earth for a footstool
Yahweh commanded all the host of heaven
Like a man of war, he cries out, he shouts aloud, he shows himself mighty against his foes.
The Parochial God
Isaiah's god is not a god for all people; he is a tribal god with the objective of advancing his chosen people above all others.
God of Israel
4 (Isa. 45:3-4)
12 (Isa. 48:1-2)
12 (Isa. 14:1-2)
10 (Isa. 41:8-10)
2 (Isa. 44:1-2)
45 6 (Isa. 52:4-6)
Father of Children
The Book of Isaiah marks a milestone in Jewish history. It was a time when Judaism shed its henotheistic past and became strictly monotheistic. What didn't change is their belief in a sectarian God, the God who would restore Israel to the glory of its Davidic kingdom. Sadly, we are still witnessing that conceit with the rise of Zionism and the ongoing Israel-Palestinian conflict.
There are reasons why thre is no connection between the definitions of the New Testament God and the Old Testament God. During the first millennium, one of the things that gave a religion its credibility was its age. Early Christians had a Jewish background but the new religion was too different to be accepted within Judaism. Yet they needed the Hebrew Bible to prove Christianity was an old religion; so they tacked it on. Figuratively speaking, the two religions became entwined like a horse with a huge hump on its back.