The Passover Supper
impossible to imagine the universe run by a wise, just and omnipotent God,
but it is quite easy to imagine it run by a board of gods. If such a board exists
it operates precisely like the board of a corporation that is losing money.
— H.L. Mencken
This page discredits the historical validity of the Last Supper and the Eucharist. (Judas’ betrayal of Jesus can be found on this page.) While we cannot disprove there was a Jewish teacher executed by the Romans for insurrection, the wealth of evidence suggests the gospel accounts are legendary. The most convincing evidence that Jesus did not exist as a real person comes from Paul’s writings. See Paul's Mystery and Paul’s Confession of Ignorance.
The original source of the gospels is unknown. But by examining how they differ and knowing they were written a minimum of forty decades after the presumed fact at different times to different audiences; we get a snapshot of how the legend grew. We find the greatest differences being between the earliest written gospel, Mark, and the last, John.
Matthew, Mark and Luke say Jesus was with his disciples on the evening of the Passover. John says Jesus was crucified the day before Passover.
Jesus commemorated the Last Supper with his disciples on the evening of Passover.
disciples set out and went to the city, and found it as he had told them; and
they prepared the passover.
17And when it was evening he came with the twelve. (Mark 14:16-17)
17Now on the
first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Where will
you have us prepare for you to eat the passover?”
18He said, “Go into the city to a certain one, and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at your house with my disciples.’”
19And the disciples did as Jesus had directed them, and they prepared the passover.
20When it was evening, he sat at table with the twelve disciples; (Matt. 26:17-20)
13And they went,
and found it as he had told them; and they prepared the passover.
14And when the hour came, he sat at table, and the apostles with him.
15And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer;
16for I tell you I shall not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 22:13-16)
According to John, Jesus was crucified on the first day of Passover. —John’s deviation appears like he intended for the timing of Jesus death to coincide with the holiness of Passover Supper.
14Now it was the
day of Preparation of the Passover; it was about the sixth hour. He [Pilate] said
to the Jews, “Behold your King!”
15They cried out, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.”
16Then he handed him over to them to be crucified.
17So they took Jesus, and he went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha.
18There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus between them. (John 19:14-18)
We could string Mark, Matthew and Luke together and say they ate in a large upper room in someone’s house in Jerusalem. But John has the disciples keep away from Jesus from the time of his trial to his death on Passover.
According to Mark and Luke, they ate in a large upper room in the evening.
15And he will
show you a large upper room furnished and ready; there prepare for us.”
16And the disciples set out and went to the city, and found it as he had told them; and they prepared the passover.
17And when it was evening he came with the twelve. (Mark 14:15-17; Luke 22:12-14)
Matthew says Jesus told them to go into the city to a certain one and tell him “my time is at hand, I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples.” The disciples did as directed.
18He said, “Go into the city to a certain one, and say to him, ‘The
Teacher says, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at your house with my disciples.’”
19And the disciples did as Jesus had directed them, and they prepared the passover. (Matt. 26:18-19)
John says the disciples were not with Jesus on the Passover. Jesus was in a place called Golgotha.
28Then they led Jesus from the house of Caiaphas to the praetorium. It was early. They themselves did not enter the praetorium, so that they might not be defiled, but might eat the passover. (John 18:28)
17So they took Jesus, and he went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha. (John 19:17)
The question of whose house did they commemorate the Passover Feast can be answered by looking at this astrologically. The Last Supper takes place when the sun is in Scorpio while the Passover meal is traditionally celebrated just after the spring. How is that? Matthew 26:18 gives the first clue when Jesus says he will eat at a certain one’s house. That would be the house of Aries. Matthew 26:20 and Mark 14:17 say they ate in the evening. That would mean that when the sun is in Scorpio, Aries can be seen in the evening. The “large upper room” again points to Aries because Aries is above the equator while Scorpio is below the equator.
Flowery rhetoric doesn’t change its implications. Clearly, this is a cannibalistic and vampiric ritual. It follows the logic of an ancient superstition that by eating the organs of a dead animal or person, the eater gains some of those properties. In the Golden Bough, anthropologist James Frazer defined the principle of sympathetic magic employed by primitive cultures.
If we analyze the principles of thought on which magic is based, they will probably be found to resolve themselves into two: first, that like produces like, or that an effect resembles its cause; and, second, that things which have once been in contact with each other continue to act on each other at a distance after the physical contact has been severed. The former principle may be called the Law of Similarity, the latter the Law of Contact or Contagion. From the first of these principles, namely the Law of Similarity, the magician infers that he can produce any effect he desires merely by imitating it: from the second he infers that whatever he does to a material object will affect equally the person with whom the object was once in contact, whether it formed part of his body or not.
Five versions of what Jesus said create five times the confusion. Small changes in wording make for significant differences in meaning. Did Jesus consume anything or not? Is the kingdom of God coming? Or is the kingdom of God up there waiting for us to come to it? Is there a blood covenant or not? Is the ritual for the forgiveness of sin or not? Or is it just for remembrance while waiting for him to come?
Mark says the bread represents his body, and the cup represents his blood of the covenant. The blood is poured out for the many and he will not drink again until he is in the kingdom of god.
22And as they
were eating, he took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them, and
said,“Take; this is my body.”
23And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it.
24And he said to them, “This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.
25Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.” (Mark 14:22-25)
Matthew is similar to Mark except he adds that the blood is poured out for the forgiveness of sins.
26Now as they
were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the
disciples and said, “Take, eat; this is my
27And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you;
28for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.
29I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” (Matt. 26:26-29)
Luke differs by asserting Jesus will not drink or eat until the kingdom of God comes, meaning he didn’t consume anything the first time. Mark and Matthew don’t say whether the kingdom will come for them or they will go to the kingdom. Luke adds that the disciples were to do this in remembrance of Jesus.
14And when the
hour came, he sat at table, and the apostles with him.
15And he said to them, “ I have earnestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer;
16for I tell you I shall not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”
17And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he said, “Take this, and divide it among yourselves;
18for I tell you that from now on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”
19And he took bread, and when he had given thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”
20And likewise the cup after supper, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. (Luke 22:14-20)
John has Jesus say nothing about a cup, a covenant, the forgiveness of sins or the kingdom of God, only that whoever eats the bread will live forever.
56He who eats my
flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him.
57As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me.
58This is the bread which came down from heaven, not such as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live for ever.” (John 6:56-58)
Jesus will not drink the cup according to John.
Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s slave and cut off
his right ear. The slave’s name was Malchus.
11Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup which the Father has given me?” (John 18:10-11)
Paul did not learn of the Eucharist from the disciples. He says he received it from revelation which leaves out human sources. This begs the question: By the mere fact that Paul predates the gospels, it appears that Paul was the original source. Paul proclaims this ritual be performed in remembrance of Jesus until he comes. He attributes no other purpose or benefit.
received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on
the night when he was betrayed took bread,
24and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”
25In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.”
26For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. (1 Cor. 11:23-26)
Was it in Jerusalem? Or in Capernaum?
According to John, Jesus said the Eucharist at a synagogue in Capernaum, not at the Last Supper in Jerusalem as the other gospels say. Its placement in John suggests Jesus said it early in his mission, unlike just before his arrest as in the other gospels.
59This he said in the synagogue, as he taught at Capernaum. (John 6:59)
How did the disciples react?
Did they go out together? Or did they follow Jesus out? Did they sing a hymn? Or did they argue instead? Or did some take offense and leave?
Matthew and Mark say they sung a hymn and then went together out to the Mount of Olives.
30And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 26:30, Mark 14:26)
Luke 22:21-38 follows with a dialogue about betrayal and an argument over who is the greatest disciple. There was no hymn sung. They followed Jesus to the Mount of Olives rather than leave with him.
39And he came out, and went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples followed him. (Luke 22:39)
According to John, many disciples took offense and left, even after Jesus tried to explain. Only the twelve stayed.
60Many of his
disciples, when they heard it, said, “This is a hard saying; who can listen to
61But Jesus, knowing in himself that his disciples murmured at it, said to them, “Do you take offense at this?
62Then what if you were to see the Son of man ascending where he was before?
63It is the spirit that gives life, the flesh is of no avail; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.
64But there are some of you that do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the first who those were that did not believe, and who it was that would betray him.
65And he said, “This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless it is granted him by the Father.” (John 6:60-65)
many of his disciples drew back and no longer went about with him.
67Jesus said to the twelve, “Do you also wish to go away?”
68Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life;
69and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.” (John 6:66-69)
The Holy Grail can be found as the constellation Crater, a Roman and Greek word for bowl. The sun was believed to start bleeding when it crossed the Fall Equinox into Libra. Crater lies below to catch the blood.